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The influence of relaxation techniques and methods over stress and anxiety

February 21st, 2012 by radu stoica | Posted in Psychology | No Comments » | 265 views | Print this Article


This work includes a case study and theoretical basis which led to the accomplishment of a therapy plan and of a therapeutical deal and to client’s positive evolution. We also may highlight good consequences of Schultz-Jacobson relaxation methods and breathing exercises. The case study is a part of our daily reality and shows the importance of cognitive-behavioral approach for treating anxiety and long-term stress, and the progress which can be made this way, especially because the client had encountering a high level of anxiety, which generated difficulty in relaxation exercises. The client, female, age 23, was also encoutering difficulties in the relationship with her parents, especially with her mother, state of facts which started with financial problems, and in time, those difficulties had increased leading to her mother’s violent behavior. Eventually we have accomplished an improvement of her general status and of her ability to establish relationships with her close pearsons.



The controlled modification of biological stress reactions involves using techniques which reduce psycho-physiological parameters of stress. One of the most important techniques is the autogenuous training.

The fundamentation of this method by J.H. Schultz at the beginning of XXth century, in Germany, is closely linked with medical hypnosis’ development.

The autogenuous training is a scientifically well foundamented method, experimentally and clinically verified which is characterised by simplicity and economicity, meaning it is easy to learn and it takes little time. The effects of this kind of training may be observed even from the very first days of practicing (a better relaxation, reduced anxiety, better sleep, concentration capacity and better memory capacity).

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Understanding the Self: an exploratory study on Freudian, Object-Relations and Social Constructionism theories

February 8th, 2012 by Nicola Caramia | Posted in Psychology | No Comments » | 454 views | Print this Article


This study examines the concept of the self from a psychodynamic perspective with a discussion on the similarities and difference among Freudian, Object Relations and Social Constructionism theories. Findings suggest that a unitary self is dominant in the psychoanalytic position, whereas the social constructionism perspective indicates the existence of a distributed self as individuals have different identities. Due to historical changes on the post-Freudian theories of the self it also appears that a unique theoretical construct of the self is unlike, but rather a gradual and evolutionary transformation of the self might be acceptable.

The origin of psychodynamics lies in neurology, psychiatry, paediatric and clinical science. The importance of early years of life for the development of the self is experienced by all human beings and it involves how, when and to what end we construct our internal representations of the external world and the creation of selfhood. Our internal world and psychic realities are our selves, the self is influenced by other people and much of the self is constructed from our internal representations of other people, relationships, aspects of people and the way we relate to us and to each other. The structure and content of the self develops during early infancy and childhood through interactions with our parental figures. In our internal world our psychic reality is the only reality that exists, which can lead us to a sense of omnipotence, idealisations and denials. The external world and its internal representations and unconscious memories are entangled in our subjective life-experience and the way we act in the real world.

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The Psyche: A Biological Perspective

February 2nd, 2012 by Robert DePaolo | Posted in Psychology | No Comments » | 147 views | Print this Article

By Robert DePaolo


This article proposes that the human psyche derives functionally and structurally from the same mechanisms that led to the origin and increasing complexity of life forms in the course of time. The mechanism is described as a sequence of events whereby organic entities first emerged through an initial separation process in which they were able to partition themselves from the outer (extra-cellular) environment via membrane structures and mechanisms. That first organism/environmental partition led to a capacity for self-regulation, whereby cells developed their own insular energy and information producing capabilities. The trend toward greater subdivisions continued, as cells proceeded to become more intra-distinctive and internally complex. To adapt to and regulate their own internal complexity they developed broader, more flexible systemic rules and psycho-physiological parameters to accommodate further intra-distinctions in line with the continued trend toward further subdivisions. This article proposes that this trend is the sine qua non of the biological world, perhaps even exceeding natural selection in importance and that it is a model that can be applied to brain evolution and the origin of psychic functioning in man.

A Concept of Life…Themes and Variations

While the advent of life forms has been viewed as a highly improbable occurrence (Crick, 1982) it might have been fairly predictable. (Ball, 2006). The amino acids arising from the tumultuous conditions on earth 3.5 billion years ago were prone to line up in chain sequences that comprise proteins, the building blocks of animal tissue. The combination of protein structures and the emergence of a heavily bonded, internally resilient macromolecule known as DNA created a prototype for an entity with resilient anatomical and reproductive features that we now refer to as “life.”

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