We can imagine egoism and altruism as being two opposite extremes. An egoist is someone who thinks only of himself/herself, acting in such a way as to obtain a personal benefit, often at the expense of others. Pure selfishness manifests itself in a myriad of all kinds of behaviour, but it is based on a mentality that is extremely opportunistic and self-centred, which causes the person to take action only when it will result in a personal. But that's not all, unfortunately. Selfishness can also manifest itself in ways that are more subtle and harmful, and this happens when you are willing to trample on other people in order to obtain a personal advantage. Selfishness can therefore easily lead to envy. At the other extreme we have the pure altruist, who only feels at ease when doing good for others. Altruism can reach exasperation exactly like its counterpart. This happens when a person deprive himself/herself of important things to give them to others, and not necessarily people actually in need. The basis for this form of altruism is not therefore a noble motivation to help others, but rather a feeling of self-punishment, or even a desire to receive attention and approval from others. The true altruist does not feel the need, therefore, to advertise his/her noble gestures, and above all does not do such gestures expecting something in return. As always, moderation is the best solution.

1 - Do you think there is a positive side to selfishness?
Not at all, selfishness is always negative
I donít have an opinion on this, but I have never thought about it deeply
Yes, sometimes you have to think about yourself, but without overdoing it
Selfishness is always positive, it helps you live better

2 - You have more respect for people who:
Are useful to you in some way
May be helpful to you in times of need
In turn show respect towards you
Respect everyone regardless

3 - Do you think itís right to help those who are less fortunate than you?
Yes, it should be the duty of every human being
Yes, but itís a personal choice, not an obligation
Not at all, itís right to help the loved ones, but you cannot help the whole world!
No, it's silly

4 - Have you ever intentionally harmed someone else, even someone you donít know, to obtain a personal benefit?
No never, I would rather harm myself!
I donít think so, but maybe it happened unintentionally
Yes, but it was an exceptional case
Yes, my well-being comes before that of others

5 - When you make a promise to someone, do you try to keep it at all costs?
Of course, otherwise it makes no sense to promise
Usually, yes, but sometimes I change my mind
I keep it if it doesnít cost me too much effort and sacrifice
I only keep it if itís of some use to me

6 - You Go to the shopping mall by car and the only parking available is at least 100 meters away. What do you do?
I park in a free space before someone else does
I keep moving until I find a parking space that is closer
I park as close as possible to the shopping mall even where I shouldnít

7 - How important is sincerity to you?
Sincerity does not exist!
It depends, sometimes it's better not to tell the truth
It is worth something, even if there are more important things
It is crucial

8 - Is it more important to earn a lot or be honest?
Earn as much as possible
Earn a lot while trying, if possible, to be honest as well
Be honest, but without turning down the possibility of making money
Honesty first and foremost. Money is less important

9 - If you won a large sum of money, how would you use it?
I would buy everything I want!
I would buy some things I want and save any money left over
I would think of the people I care about and if any money is left over I would spend it on myself
I would do a lot for charity and I would use the rest to help my friends and family

10 - When you have the possibility of delegating a tedious job to another person, what do you do?
I immediately ask them to do it for me!
I explain that in the meantime I will dedicate myself to something else and pass them the task
I would feel guilty to ask him/her to do it for me, so I would avoid it
If the job is meant to be for me then I should do it, even if itís boring

11 - When a person wrongly accuses you, how do you react?
I get angry and swear at them
I get irritated and stop the conversation to avoid it degenerating
It upsets me but I try to explain my reasoning while keeping calm
There is no reason to get upset: I smile and calmly explain how things are

12 - When another person is talking you:
Donít pay attention, you get distracted
Donít listen, you focus on your thoughts
Try to pay attention even if itís boring
Listen carefully to whatever the person is saying

13 - A friend asks you to do him a favour which would skip your plans for the evening. What do you do?
Invent an excuse to avoid doing him/her the favour
Explain your situation and try and make the person understand that you cannot do him/her the favour
You find a compromise without giving up on what you planned to do
You agree to do him the favour without hesitation

14 - You only get what you give. What do you think of this?
Itís untrue, I always get more than I give
Itís not always true, sometimes you can get more than what you give
Itís true, but sometimes one would like to get more than what one gives
Very true, those who give a lot also receive a lot, those who little also receive little

15 - Do you get more pleasure from giving or receiving?
From receiving, absolutely
From receiving, but I also love giving
From giving, but it's also nice to receive
From giving, absolutely

Psychology and psychotherapy
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